Geography 132 & 132L
Physical Geography: Natural Landscapes
Chapter 11 & 12
Read the information provided and answer the following questions in this document.
All your answers should be submitted in red. The lab is due Sunday, August 30th, at 11:59 pm, in the dropbox folder “Lab II”, in pdf format.
The grading of all your answers will be based on how much detail you provide. This does not mean length. Go in depth and use the appropriate punctuation.
Do not use the expressions “I think”, or “I believe”. Base your answers on the information you learned from your textbook.
Do not paraphrase the textbook, use your own words to provide value to the answer.
Add a reference page for your sources.
Always read all the instructions carefully.
Grading: the questions are worth 52 points, and 3 points are earned by following the instructions provided above.
Chapter 11: The Dynamic Planet
Section 11.1: Fracking and Rock types
1. How can fracking represent a threat to the environment and people? Provide several reasons (3 points)
2. List the three rock types and describe in your own words how they were created (3 points)
Section 11.2: Field Trip
Now, I want you to go out on the landscape, somewhere not too far from your home, and find some exposed rock. Sometimes is obvious, like Devil’s Tower, and sometimes not so much, like the catlinite at Pipestone. Unfortunately, a rock pile or a gravel pit won’t count for this lab.
If you can, take a piece of this rock back home. If you can’t take it home, take some closeup pictures so you can refer back to them later. You want to be sure to get details of the colors in the rock, and the crystals (if there are any) or the layers (if there are any) or the air bubbles (if there are any). Before you leave, take a picture of you at your site, so I know you were there, and I can help figure out how to help if you get stuck. If you’re not sure where you pulled off the road, be sure you have enough notes or a map handy, so you can reconstruct where you stopped. This will be key to the next portion of the lab.
Once you get home, it’s time to figure out just what type of rock you have (of the three major types). If you can identify it in more detail, that is awesome, but for this lab, I just want to get the basics.
There are a couple of sources that you can use to help identify your rock type. Here I provide an example:
My rock is mostly light colored, but it has darker colored stripes all going in the same direction. The rock is smooth looking (nothing sticking out or angular), but when I rub my fingers across it, it feels uniformly rough – like sand paper. This is sandstone. It is a sedimentary rock that is formed when sand is bonded together by a process called lithification.
Describe your rock:
Color (0.5 point)
Size of your rock (0.5 point):
Smooth or rough? (0.5 point)
Any crystals? If yes, big or small? (0.5 point)
Holes or bubbles (regular or occasional)? (0.5 point)
Other unique features (0.5 point)
Area of bedrock you took it from (include a map): (2 points)
Include a picture here (2 points):
Of the three rock types, which one do you think yours falls into? Why? (2 points)
Chapter 12: Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanism
Section 12.1 Plate Tectonics
Complete this activity after reading chapter 12 of your e-book. Note: this is one of the most important chapters of this course.
Using the Reference Map on the next page, and Map 1, identify the tectonic feature for each number of Map 1. The numbers below match with the numbers on Map 1. Use all these terms: divergence, convergence between oceanic-oceanic plates, convergence between oceanic-continental plates, convergence between continental-continental plates, and hotspot. (5 points)
Reference Map (Hint: the map located on page 336 of your e-book can also help you see the arrow patterns)
1.2 .1 Volcanism
Use the table below to answer the following questions.
Major cause of deaths
Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia
Volcano collapse, tsunami
Mudflows, lava flows
Lamington, Papua New Guinea
El Chichon, Mexico
Soufriere, St. Vincent
Ash flows, mudflows
Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia
***** Starvation is an outlier, an exception that may not represent the major cause of volcanic deaths in general. For that reason, do not use it to answer question 8.
8. Volcanic eruptions have resulted in many deaths throughout history. These deaths are not always instantaneous or directly related to the climax of the eruption. Evaluate the above table: determine what cause of death had the most casualties, and give an explanation on how this occurred. What recommendations would you give local officials to help avoid this type of death in future eruptions? Write your answer in paragraph form (2 points)
9. What circumstances do you think that led to starvation in the case of Tambora, Indonesia? (2 points)
Section 1.2.2 Volcanoes: Research and Applications
Read all the necessary instructions to complete the next part of the assignment:
You will use the Smithsonian Institute’s website (Global Volcanism Program) to answer the questions below.
Go to d2l, under ‘Content’, ‘Week 2’.
Open the document ‘Instructions – Smithsonian Institution’s Website’. This contains step-by-step instructions to access the website and get the information you need.
10. What was the population within 100 km of these volcanoes from Table 1.1? (1.5 points)
11. Using the Smithsonian website look up what volcano from Question 10 would affect the most people? (1 point)
12. What is one preventative measure that cities with close proximity to volcanic activity should consider? (2 points)
13. What is the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of these volcanoes from Table 1.1? Hint: remember to always use ‘most recent eruption’. (1.5 points).
Nevado del Ruiz:
14. Considering the volcanoes from Questions 10 and 13, which one has the potential to be the most dangerous and why? Consider VEI and the size of the population affected by it. Hint: Feel free to use the website provided to find more information to provide more reasons for your answer choice. (2 points)
Section 1.1.3 Earthquakes
A study of earthquakes and faults helps scientists to know more about their causes, understand how the ground moves during earthquakes, predict where they are likely to happen, warn people of their hazards, and design buildings and infrastructure that may survive earthquakes. “Earthquakes also occur within plates, although plate-boundary earthquakes are much more common. Less than 10 percent of all earthquakes occur within plate interiors. As plates continue to move and plate boundaries change over geologic time, weakened boundary regions become part of the interiors of the plates. These zones of weakness within the continents can cause earthquakes in response to stresses that originate at the edges of the plate or in the deeper crust.” (USGS)
Open the PDF “GIS Earthquake Activity Instructions”, located on d2l, under Content > Course Material> Week 2, to answer the questions below.
13. What is the range of dates of the earthquake data contained in this layer? (1 point)
14. What type of plate boundary created the Andes Mountain Range? (1 point)
15. What type of plate boundary was primarily responsible for creating the Mid Atlantic Ridge? (1 point)
16. In this data, what type of plate boundary is associated with the largest number of earthquakes? (1 point)
17. In this data, what is the most common type of plate boundary associated with the deeper focus depths? (1 point)
18. In this data, what type of plate boundary is closest to the earthquake with the deepest focus depth? (1 point)
19. In this data, what type of plate boundary is closest to the earthquake with the shallowest focus depth? (1 point)
20. What is the deepest earthquake focus represented on the map? Where and when did it occur? (1 point)
21. Construct a hypothesis:
Question: What area with a high population is the most vulnerable to earthquakes with a magnitude of 6.2 or higher within this dataset? (1 point)
22. Using the selected earthquake and the urban areas layer, name two large urban areas in close proximity to the highest earthquake (1 point).
23. Name two large urban areas in close proximity to the earthquake with the second highest magnitude (1 point).
24. The earthquake data you have been using only contain earthquakes occurring within a one-month span. Do you expect to see the same global patterns of earthquakes throughout other months of the year? Explain your answer (1 points).
25. Look back to the hypothesis. Was your hypothesis correct? Why or why not? (1 point)
Critical Thinking Questions
26. Using the ArcGIS Online map what spatial patterns (think of the spatial distribution, not necessarily mentioning the name of places but their location in relation to plate tectonics) are associated with earthquakes? Explain your answer (3 points)
27. What type(s) of plate boundary are associated with the most severe earthquakes? (1 point)
28. Explain the relationship between plate boundaries, earthquakes, and volcanism. Hint: the animation on page 338 of your textbook can provide you more clarity about this (you must click on the link provided inside the animation box). The key to these questions is to emphasize WHERE within plates volcanoes and earthquakes occur. Question 26 is the guide to this answer (3 point)