Case Study Ebola Virus Final Draft
The Final case study report should encompass material from every one of the 9 chapters in the “Microbiology: Practical Applications and Infection Prevention” book used during the HC 202 Medical Microbiology course at Western Dakota Tech.
The “Final Case Study Report – must include the following components from the 9 Chapters:
• General characteristics of the microorganism (Chapter 1 Concepts)
i. Is it normal flora? Pathogenic? Virulent?
ii. Is it prokaryotic? Eukaryotic?
1. Does it possess a capsule? Slime layer? Cilia? Flagella? Spores? (Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 concepts)
iii. How does the human immune response try to prevent an infection and, if infected, how does the immune system respond?
1. Does the human body respond with innate response? Adaptive response? Both?
2. What role do T cells play? B cells?
iv. How is the microorganism transmitted?
1. Contact transmission? (Direct versus Indirect)
2. Does the microorganism utilize a fomite? Vector?
3. Does the microorganism use common vehicle transmission? Airborne transmission?
• Science of the microorganism (Chapter 2 Concepts) – If you have selected a bacterial microorganism, the following will more than likely apply:
i. What is the genus name? What is the species name?
ii. What is the bacterial structure and morphology?
1. Cocci? Bacilli? Spirilla?
iii. What staining techniques can be used to identify the microorganism? Gram stain? AFB Stain?
iv. Can the microorganism be cultured? Can susceptibility (sensitivities) be performed?
v. Does the microorganism produce exotoxins? Endotoxins?
vi. What do bacteriostatic agents do against the microorganism? Bactericidal agents?
vii. Is the microorganism aerobic? Anaerobic?
viii. Does the organism develop resistance to antibiotics?
• Science of the microorganism (Chapter 3 Concepts)
i. If you have selected a viral organism, the following will more than likely apply:
1. Does the microorganism contain RNA or DNA?
2. Can you acquire immunity to the microorganism?
a. Natural? Artificial (Immunization)?
b. Is there a vaccine available for your microorganism?
3. Can your microorganism develop latency?
4. What does viral load mean? (If you have selected a virus for your microorganism)
ii. If you have selected a parasitic or helminth organism, the following will more than likely apply:
1. Discuss the stages of development of the parasite
iii. If you have selected a fungal microorganism, the following will more than likely apply:
1. Discuss what yeasts are
2. Is your microorganism dimorphic?
3. Discuss what molds are
• Infection Prevention Measures (Chapter 4 Concepts)
i. What infection control and prevention measures must be followed for your organism? What is its chain of infection? Its portal of entry?
ii. What are vegetative organisms? Spores?
iii. Can your organism be denatured?
iv. What is contamination? Infection? Inflammation?
v. Is your organism common as nosocomial infection (aka HAIs)?
vi. What standard precautions must be in place for your organism?
vii. Do you sanitize for your organism? Decontaminate? Disinfect?
1. What type of disinfectants (i.e. low-level, intermediate-level, high-level) work on your organism?
viii. Do you sterilize for your organism?
ix. What methods are used to disinfect and sterilize for your organism?
1. Heat? Pasteurization? Boiling Water? Steam and Pressure (Autoclave)?
x. What liquids and compounds are used for your organism?
xi. Alcohol? Acetic Acid? Phenols? Chlorine? Hydrogen Peroxide?
xii. Is Gas Sterilization used for your organism?
xiii. Is Radiation used for your organism?
• How do we protect our patients and ourselves? (Chapter 5 Concepts)
i. How does OSHA protect us as employees against your organism?
1. What are Bloodborne Pathogen Standards? (end of chapter)
ii. What portals of entry does your organism use to gain access?
1. What is a “carrier” or reservoir of infection?
iii. What routes of infection does your organism use?
1. (May have discussed above from Chapter 1)
iv. Why do you perform hand hygiene for your organism?
1. Is your organism resident flora? Transient flora?
v. Do you employ transmission-based precautions for your organism?
1. Contact precautions? Droplet precautions? Airborne precautions?
vi. What standard precautions are employed for your organism?
1. Hand hygiene? PPE?
vii. Are cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene implemented for your organism?
viii. What safe injection practices are used for your organism?
1. What is a sharps container?
ix. What transmission-based precautions are employed for your organism? (Discussed above)
• What Microbiological-related procedures do we use (Chapter 6 Concepts)
i. Do we use sterile gloves and/or nonsterile gloves for our organism?
ii. What is infectious waste? Sharps? Nonsharps? Biological liquid waste? Pathological waste?
1. Review: Table 6-2, Table 6-3
iii. What is open method? Closed method?
1. Review: Table 6-4, Table 6-5
iv. What is asepsis?
1. Does your organism require medical asepsis? Surgical asepsis?
a. Review Table 6-6
v. What are sterile principles? How do you create a sterile field?
1. Review Table 6-7
vi. What specimen collection principles are followed for your organism?
1. Review Table 6-8
vii. Can your organism be obtained from blood cultures? CSF? Sputum? (Table 6-9) Wound? (Table 6-10) Urine? (Table 6-11) Stool? (Table 6-12) Throat? (Table 6-13) Nasal?
• Immunizations & Antimicrobials (Abbreviated Chapter 7 Concepts)
i. Differentiate signs and symptoms
1. What signs does your organism display in infections? Symptoms?
2. What are vital signs commonly displayed from your organism in infections?
3. What is the syndrome produced by your organism?
4. What is a diagnosis? Patient’s chief complaint or concern?
5. What is the etiology of your organism? Prognosis?
6. What is the remission? Relapse? Does the organism cause exacerbation?
7. What is the mortality associated with your organism? Morbidity?
8. How does epidemiology apply to your organism?
a. Differentiate endemic, epidemic, pandemic
ii. Does infection with your organism allow for immunity?
1. Passive immunity? Immunoglobulins? Active immunity?
iii. Is your organism classified as a “superbacteria?”
iv. Do broad-spectrum antibiotics cover your organism? Narrow-spectrum antibiotics?
1. Has your organism developed resistance?
v. What do bacteriostatic drugs do to your organism? Bacteriocidal?
vi. Does your organism allow for superinfections to occur?
vii. What are antitubercular drugs? What antiviral drugs may be used? What antifungal drugs may be used? (If applicable)
• Nonrespiratory Infectious Diseases (Abbreviated Chapter 8 Concepts)
i. Does your organism cause infections of the head or neck?
1. Meningitis? Encephalitis? Otitis Media? Parotitis?
ii. Does your organism cause infections of the eye?
1. Conjunctivitis? Keratitis?
iii. Does your organism cause cardiovascular infections?
1. Endocarditis? CRBSIs?
iv. Does your organism cause diseases of the skin and soft tissues?
1. Cellulitis? Erysipelas? Necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections? (i.e necrotizing fasciitis?)
v. Does your organism cause intra-abdominal infections?
1. Appendicitis? Acute Cholescystitis? Diverticulitis? (Please recognize Clostridium difficule) Infectious diarrhea?
vi. Does your organism cause genital tract infections?
1. Recognize STDs (Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, HSV (Type 1 and Type 2), HIV
vii. Does your organism cause urinary tract infections?
1. Cystitis? Pyelonephritis?
viii. Does your organism cause bone and joint infections?
1. Osteomyelitis? Septic arthritis?
• Respiratory Infectious Diseases (Abbreviated Chapter 9 Concepts)
i. Does your organism cause upper respiratory airway infections?
1. Sinusitis? Pharyngitis? Epiglottitis? Croup?
ii. Does your organism cause lower respiratory infections?
1. Acute bronchitis? Bronchiolitis? Pneumonia? CAP? Atypical pneumonia? Viral pneumonia? Tracheobronchitis? HCAP? VAP? HAP? Aspiration Pneumonia? Pneumocystitis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP)? Tuberculosis?
a. Does your organism have the ability to be used as a bioterrorism agent?
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