Computer Ethic – Computer System Reliability and Ethical Evaluations of Behavior in Therac-25 Case

*******Read the Therac-25 article, and answer 2 parts below. Part 1 is about 400 words. Do 2 parts in full 3 pages. Do not need name,course,instructor,…*******

Part 1 – Computer System Reliability: Computer System Reliability depends on hardware, software, and users. As computer scientists, we must design safe hardware that can be given commands by software that executes intentional action. We must be careful in the specification of our intent, since it is the behavior for which we alone are accountable. Many guidelines for ethical conduct in professional fields includes various statements of the rule: “First, Do No Harm.”

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When we undertake the design of sophisticated computer-base medical systems we must understand the risks involved and design our systems to reduce those risks to the level of insignificance. This requires fail-safe systems for hardware, software, operators and patients. We must understand and control the behavior of all components. Our behavior as designers, developers, implementers, and users must be as near perfection as humanly possible. To approach perfection, we must be accurate observers, with the ability to explain all of the behaviors produced by a system and understand their implications.

Unfortunately, human behavior always fails at some level of system design, development, implementation, use and maintenance. We can become the deciding factor in system success if we do not recognize our intrinsic imperfections, biases, motivations, goals and limitations. Depending on the consequences of system failure, we must exercise appropriate care, accuracy, and safety.

Read the Therac-25 article. While reading, identify and categorize the behaviors of the creators, marketers, users and (unfortunately) victims of the Therac-25 computer controlled radiation therapy system. Each actor’s behaviors establishes moral culpability. For instance, the decision to eliminate physical safety interlock systems and substitute software safety systems is ultimately an ethical decision that has profound moral consequences.

After identifying all actors (programmers, designers, engineers, doctors, users, etc.) and behaviors, organize the identified behaviors into categories on the basis of the actors. Submit this itemization in a concise organized listing to be used to complete your final project of evaluating these behaviors by the computer science and software engineering code of ethics. Submit this itemization in a concise organized listing to be used to complete Part 2 of evaluating these behaviors by the computer science and software engineering code of ethics. This listing constitutes completion of Part 2. Briefly introduce the system and its characteristics and problems, then present the listing of actors and behaviors concisely as a description of what was done and the subsequent material consequences. For example, management did not develop written software engineering standards and thus it was impossible to determine the evolutionary process that produced the Therac-25 software.

Part 2 – Ethical Evaluations of Human Behaviors in the Therac-25 Computer System Case: Human behavior always fails at some level of system design, development, implementation, use and maintenance. This can become the deciding factor in system success if we do not recognize our intrinsic imperfections, biases, motivations, goals and limitations. Depending on the consequences of system failure, we must exercise appropriate care, accuracy, and safety.

Use the listing of behaviors organized on the basis of the actors (programmers, designers, engineers, doctors, users, etc.) to identify the violations of the ethical codes developed for computer scientists and software engineers. Identify the details of the behavior and specific elements of the code violations. Explain what behavior should have been performed by the actor or actors to conform with the ethical code.

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