Cholera Epidemiological Triad

Principles of Epidemiology

Cholera is a diarrheal disease that results when the intestines get infected with the deleterious gram-negative bacterium that is known as Vibrio cholera. Vibrio clolerae is a form of the facultative pathogen which has both environmental and human lifecycles (Weil, & LaRocque, 2020). Often times, the infections are mild or without apparent symptoms, whereas they can be severe sometimes. Typically, Vibrio cholera is found in food or water that has been contaminated by human fecal matter. There is a high probability of cholera prevalence in areas experiencing water scarcity, inadequate treatment of water, poor sanitation practices, low standards of hygiene.
The host nutritional and genetic factors contribute greatly to cholera susceptibility. The ABH blood group antigens are the major determinants of the host contracting quite a number of gastrointestinal illnesses. The phenotype o, for example, is characterized by H antigen, which is usually not modified and consequently associated with low risks of vibrio cholera infection (Maina, 2017). On the other hand, if the host is associated with the O phenotype, there is a higher probability of symptoms that are very severe. In the populations dominated by the blood group O, for instance, Latin America, cholera disease is more intense and severe, which in turn requires hospitalization and rehydration of the infected patients.
Although malnutrition may not appear to be a risk factor of individual contracting vibrio cholera, deficiency of micronutrients such as vitamin A or retinol, however, increases the susceptibility of the disease. Retinol deficiency in an individual is a risk factor to the contraction of the disease and the subsequent development of symptomatic illnesses (Watve et al., 2020). Zinc deficiency furthermore contributes to mucosal immunity, thus increasing the chances of being infected. Other factors within a host that can contribute to the contraction of the disease include reduced levels of the absence of stomach acids in an individual. This immune system has been compromised due to aging or other as a result of other chronic illnesses and, finally, household exposure, for instance, coming into contact with people who are already infected with the disease.

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Weil, A. A., & LaRocque, R. C. (2020). Cholera and Other Vibrios. In Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases (pp. 486-491). Content Repository Only!.
Maina, J. W. (2017). Critical environmental factors that influence the presence of vibrio cholera in the setting of Nairobi.
Watve, S., Barrasso, K., Jung, S. A., Davis, K. J., Hawver, L. A., Khataokar, A., … & Ng, W. L. (2020). Parallel quorum-sensing system in Vibrio cholerae prevents signal interference inside the host. PLoS Pathogens, 16(2), e1008313.

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