Use specific quotes and examples from the documents to support your answers. Use specific quotes and examples from the documents to support your answers. Im going to copy paste the reading this needs quotes from.
Democracy and the New Governments of 1776
How revolutionary were the new Revolutionary governments? The answer depends on the colony in which you lived. The new governments were diverse, with some colonies democratizing politics considerably (albeit for white men only) while others created new governments that looked remarkably like the old ones that had existed under British rule. Below you will find documents from two ends of the spectrum of democratization and stasis: Pennsylvania and Maryland. Your job is to determine how democratic the new governments of Pennsylvania and Maryland were based on their constitutions (edited versions of each are below) and on the reactions to the new governments in each colony.
Use the documents below:
1) The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 (Abridged)
2) Comments on Pennsylvania’s New 1776 Government
3) Maryland Constitution of 1776 (Abridged)
4) Comments on Maryland’s New 1776 Government
To answer the following question:
Question: How democratic were the new governments of Pennsylvania and Maryland? Use specific quotes and examples from the documents to support your answers. Use specific quotes and examples from the documents to support your answers.
1) The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 (Abridged):
Plan or Frame of Government
Section 1. The commonwealth or state of Pennsylvania shall be governed hereafter by an assembly of the representatives of the freemen of the same, and a president and council, in manner and form following–
Sect. 2. The supreme legislative power shall be vested in a house of representatives of the freemen of the commonwealth or state of Pennsylvania.
Sect. 3. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a president and council.
Sect. 4. Courts of justice shall be established in the city of Philadelphia, and in every county of this state.
Sect. 5. The freemen of this commonwealth and their sons shall be trained and armed for its defense under such regulations, restrictions, and exceptions as the general assembly shall by law direct, preserving always to the people the right of choosing their colonel and all commissioned officers under that rank, in such manner and as often as by the said laws shall be directed.
Sect. 6. Every freeman of the full age of twenty-one years, having resided in this state for the space of one whole year next before the day of election for representatives, and paid public taxes during that time, shall enjoy the right of an elector: Provided always that sons of freeholders of the age of twenty-one years shall be entitled to vote although they have not paid taxes.
Sect. 7. The house of representatives of the freemen of this commonwealth shall consist of persons most noted for wisdom and virtue, to be chosen by the freemen of every city and county of this commonwealth respectively. And no person shall be elected unless he has resided in the city or county for which he shall be chosen two years immediately before the said election; nor shall any member, while he continues such, hold any other office, except in the militia.
Sect. 8. No person shall be capable of being elected a member to serve in the house of representatives of the freemen of this commonwealth more than four years in seven….
Sect. 11. No man shall sit in congress longer than two years successively, nor be capable of reelection for three years afterwards: and no person who holds any office in the gift of the congress shall hereafter be elected to represent this commonwealth in congress.
….And each member, before he takes his seat, shall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz:
I do believe in one God, the creator and governor of the universe, the rewarder of the good and the punisher of the wicked. And I do acknowledge the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by Divine inspiration.
And no further or other religious test shall ever hereafter be required of any civil officer or magistrate in this State. .
Sect. 13. The doors of the house in which the representatives of the freemen of this state shall sit in general assembly, shall be and remain open for the admission of all persons who behave decently, except only when the welfare of this state may require the doors to be shut.
Sect. 14. The votes and proceedings of the general assembly shall be printed weekly during their sitting, with the yeas and nays, on any question, vote or resolution, where any two members require it, except when the vote is taken by ballot; and when the yeas and nays are so taken every member shall have a right to insert the reasons of his vote upon the minutes, if he desires it.
Sect. 15. To the end that laws before they are enacted may be more maturely considered, and the inconvenience of hasty determinations as much as possible prevented, all bills of public nature shall be printed for the consideration of the people, before they are read in general assembly the last time for debate and amendment; and, except on occasions of sudden necessity, shall not be passed into laws until the next session of assembly; and for the more perfect satisfaction of the public, the reasons and motives for making such laws shall be fully and clearly expressed in the preambles.
The treasurer of the state, trustees of the loan office, naval officers, collectors of customs or excise, judge of the admiralty, attornies general, sheriffs, and prothonotaries, shall not be capable of a seat in the general assembly, executive council, or continental congress.
Sect. 22. Every officer of state, whether judicial or executive, shall be liable to be impeached by the general assembly, either when in office, or after his resignation or removal for mal-administration: All impeachments shall be before the president or vice-president and council, who shall hear and determine the same.
Sect. 23. The judges of the supreme court of judicature shall have fixed salaries, be commissioned for seven years only, though capable of re-appointment at the end of that term, but removable for misbehaviour at any time by the general assembly; they shall not be allowed to sit as members in the continental congress, executive council, or general assembly, nor to hold any other office civil or military, nor to take or receive fees or perquisites of any kind.
Sect. 25. Trials shall be by jury as heretofore: And it is recommended to the legislature of this state, to provide by law against every corruption or partiality in the choice, return, or appointment of juries.
Sect. 26. All courts shall be open, and justice shall be impartially administered without corruption or unnecessary delay: All their officers shall be paid an adequate but moderate compensation for their services: And if any officer shall take greater or other fees than the law allows him, either directly or indirectly, it shall ever after disqualify him from holding any office in this state.
Sect. 28. The person of a debtor, where there is not a strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison, after delivering up, bona fide, all his estate real and personal, for the use of his creditors, in such manner as shall be hereafter regulated by law. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident, or presumption great.
Sect. 29. Excessive bail shall not be exacted for bailable offences: And all fines shall be moderate.
Sect. 30. Justices of the peace shall be elected by the freeholders of each city and county respectively, that is to say, two or more persons may be chosen for each ward, township, or district, as the law shall hereafter direct. No justice of the peace shall sit in the general assembly unless he first resigns his commission; nor shall he be allowed to take any fees, nor any salary or allowance, except such as the future legislature may grant.
Sect. 31. Sheriffs and coroners shall be elected annually in each city and county, by the freemen. No person shall continue in the office of sheriff more than three successive years, or be capable of being again elected during four years afterwards. And the commissioners and assessors, and other officers chosen by the people, shall also be then and there elected, as has been usual heretofore, until altered or otherwise regulated by the future legislature of this state.
Sect. 32. All elections, whether by the people or in general assembly, shall be by ballot, free and voluntary: And any elector, who shall receive any gift or reward for his vote, in meat, drink, monies or otherwise, shall forfeit his right to elect for that time, and suffer such other penalties as future laws shall direct. And any person who shall directly or indirectly give, promise, or bestow any such rewards to be elected, shall be thereby rendered incapable to serve for the ensuing year.
Sect. 35. The printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature, or any part of government.
Sect. 36. As every freeman to preserve his independence, (if without a sufficient estate) ought to have some profession, calling, trade or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for, nor use in establishing offices of profit, the usual effects of which are dependence and servility unbecoming freemen, in the possessors and expectants; faction, contention, corruption, and disorder among the people. But if any man is called into public service, to the prejudice of his private affairs, he has a right to a reasonable compensation: And whenever an office, through an increase of fees or otherwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought to be lessened by the legislature.
Sect. 39. To deter more effectually from the commission of crimes, by continued visible punishments of long duration, and to make sanguinary punishments less necessary: houses ought to be provided for punishing by hard labour, those who shall be convicted of crimes not capital; wherein the criminals shall be imployed for the benefit of the public, or for reparation of injuries done to private persons: And all persons at proper times shall be admitted to see the prisoners at their labour.
Sect. 42. Every foreigner of good character who comes to settle in this state, having first taken an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the same, may purchase, or by other just means acquire, hold, and transfer land or other real estate; and after one year’s residence, shall be deemed a free denizen thereof, and entitled to all the rights of a natural born subject of this state, except that he shall not be capable of being elected a representative until after two years residence.
Sect. 43. The inhabitants of this state shall have liberty to fowl and hunt in seasonable times on the lands they hold, and on all other lands therein not inclosed; and in like manner to fish in all boatable waters, and others not private property.
Sect. 44. A school or schools shall be established in each county by the legislature, for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct youth at low prices: And all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more universities.
Sect. 45. Laws for the encouragement of virtue, and prevention of vice and immorality, shall be made and constantly kept in force, and provision shall be made for their due execution: And all religious societies or bodies of men heretofore united or incorporated for the advancement of religion and learning, or for other pious and charitable purposes, shall be encouraged and protected in the enjoyment of the privileges, immunities and estates which they were accustomed to enjoy, or could of right have enjoyed, under the laws and former constitution of this state.
Passed in Convention the 28th day of September, 1776, and signed by their order.
BENJ. FRANKLIN, Prest.
2) Comments on Pennsylvania’s New 1776 Government:
“The Examiner,” Pennsylvania Evening Post, Oct. 15, 1776: [On the 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution] “This wise, this necessary preservative against tyranny has given very great offence to some of our gentry who regard you as their property, their beasts of burden, born only to be ruled by these Lords of the Creation….I have been repeatedly told by them that gentlemen would not submit to have power so much in the hands of the people. The people, they say, are not fit to be the guardians of their own rights.”
“Independent,” Pennsylvania Packet, Mar. 18, 1776: [On the opposition to the creation of a new government] [They were “the better sort who [thought they] were made, ordained, constituted, appointed, and predestined from the foundation of the world to govern and to all intents and valuable purposes, possess the surface of the this globe and all its inhabitants
“Cassandra,” Pennsylvania Packet, April 8, 1776: [On the opposition to the creation of a new government] “aristocratical junto, who are straining every nerve to frustrate our virtuous endeavours and to make the common and middle class of people their beasts of burden.”
“A Watchman,” Pennsylvania Packet, June 24, 1776: [On opposition to the new government] “Men of property” [spoke out against the new government]. “But always remember that they derive no right to power from their wealth and that a freeman worth only fifty pounds is entitled by the laws of province to all the privileges of the first Nabob of the country. Remember the influence of wealth upon the morals and principles of mankind. Recollect how often you have heard the first principles of government subverted by the calls…to make way for men of fortune to declare their sentiments upon the subject of Independence, as if a minority of rich men were to govern the majority of virtuous freeholders in the province.
“Andrew Marvell,” Pennsylvania Packet, Nov. 26, 1776: [Critic of 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution] “A member if the late [Constitutional] Convention congratulated the State upon the opening of the Convention that a set of plain men with good understandings were assembled together to make a government. It was debated for some time in the Convention whether the future legislatures of this State should have the power of lessening property when it became excessive in individuals.”
“Sully,” Pennsylvania Packet, Feb. 2, 1779: [Critic of 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution]: “The Magistrates of the State were elected by a small body of the people, and consist chiefly of illiterate men who are altogether unqualified for their offices….These infringements of the Constitution have been pointed out in the newspapers, but the people are not yet sufficiently alarmed with them. They are blinded with the workmanship of their own hands, and think a [Patriot] in power, “can do no wrong.” The men of the greatest property in the State are in the scale of opposition. If the Constitution should not be altered, the revolution of a few years will bring the present opposition into power. Perhaps we may then hear of an exchange in the principles of the parties. When the wealthy men become a majority in the Assembly, they may imitate the present rulers of the state in violating the Constitution and vote themselves as perpetual to the rump Parliament of England.”
3) Maryland Constitution of 1776 (Abridged):
Things to keep in mind: How is the government structured? Who can vote? Who can hold office? How are political leaders selected? Are they elected or appointed? By whom?
I. THAT the Legislature consist of two distinct branches, a Senate and House of Delegates, which shall be styled, The General Assembly of Maryland.
II. That the House of Delegates shall be chosen in the following manner: All freemen, above twenty-one years of age, having a freehold of fifty acres of land, in the county in which they offer to vote, and residing therein-and all freemen, having property in this State above the value of thirty pounds current money, and having resided in the county, in which they offer to vote, one whole year next preceding the election, shall have a right of suffrage, in the election of Delegates for such county: and all freemen, so qualified, shall, en the first Monday of October, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven and on the same day in every year thereafter, assemble in the counties, in which they are respectively qualified to vote, at the court-house, in the said counties; or at such other place as the Legislature shall direct; and, when assembled, they shall proceed to elect, viva voce, four Delegates, for their respective counties, of the most wise, sensible, and discreet of the people, residents in the county where they are to be chosen, one whole year next preceding the election, above twenty-one years of age, and having, in the State, real or personal property above the value of five hundred pounds current money; and upon the final casting of the polls, the four persons who shall appear to have the greatest number of legal votes shall be declared and returned duly elected for their respective counties.
IV. That all persons qualified, by the charter of the city of Annapolis, to vote for Burgesses, shall, on the same first Monday of October, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and on the same day in every year forever thereafter, elect, viva voce [by voice vote], by a majority of votes, two Delegates, qualified agreeable to the said charter; that the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen of the said city, or any three of them, be judges of the election, appoint the place in the said city for holding the same, and may adjourn from day to day, as aforesaid, and shall make return thereof, as aforesaid: but the inhabitants of the said city shall not be entitled to vote for Delegates for Anne-Arundel county, unless they have a freehold of fifty acres of land in the county distinct from the City.
V. That all persons, inhabitants of Baltimore town, and having the same qualifications as electors in the county, shall, on the same first Monday in October, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and on the same day in every year forever thereafter, at such place in the said town as the Judges shall appoint, elect, viva voce [by voice vote], by a majority of votes, two Delegates, qualified as aforesaid: but if the said inhabitants of the town shall so decrease, as that a number of persons, having a right of suffrage therein, shall have been, for the space of seven years successively, less than one half the number of voters in some one county in this State, such town shall thenceforward cease to send two Delegates or Representatives to the House of Delegates, until the said town shall have one half of the number of voters in some one county in this State.
X. That the House of Delegates may originate all money bills, propose bills to the Senate, or receive those offered by that body; and assent, dissent, or propose amendments; that they may inquire on the oath of witnesses, into all complaints, grievances, and offences, as the grand inquest of this State; and may commit any person, for any crime, to the public jail, there to remain till he be discharged by due course of law. They may expel any member, for a great misdemeanor, but not a second time for the same cause. They may examine and pass all accounts of the State, relating either to the collection or expenditure of the revenue, or appoint auditors, to state and adjust the same. They may call for all public or official papers and records, and send for persons, whom they may judge necessary in the course of their inquiries, concerning affairs relating to the public interest; and may direct all office bonds (which shall be made payable to the State) to be sued for any breach of duty.
XI. That the Senate may be at full and perfect liberty to exercise their judgment in passing laws-and that they may not be compelled by the House of Delegates, either to reject a money bill, which the emergency of affairs may require, or to assent to some other act of legislation, in their conscience and judgment injurious to the public welfare–the House of Delegates shall not on any occasion, or under any presence annex to, or blend with a money bill, any matter, clause, or thing, not immediately relating to, and necessary for the imposing, assessing, levying, or applying the taxes or supplies, to be raised for the of government, or the current expenses of the State: and to prevent altercation about such bills, it is declared, that no bill, imposing duties or customs for the mere regulation of commerce, or inflicting fines for the reformation of morals, or to enforce the execution of the laws, by which an incidental revenue may arise, shall be accounted a money bill: but every bill, assessing, levying, or applying taxes or supplies, for the support of government, or the current expenses of the State, or appropriating money in the treasury, shall be deemed a money bill.
XIV. That the Senate be chosen in the following manner: All persons, qualified as aforesaid to vote for county Delegates, shall, on the first tidy of September, 1781, and on the same day in every fifth year forever thereafter, elect, viva voce [by voice vote], by a majority of votes, two persons for their respective counties (qualified as aforesaid to be elected county Delegates) to be electors of the Senate; and the Sheriff of each county, or, in case of sickness, his Deputy (summoning two Justices of the county, who are required to attend, for the preservation of the peace,) shall hold and be judge of the said election, and make return thereof, as aforesaid. And all persons, qualified as aforesaid, to vote for Delegates for the city of Annapolis and Baltimore town, shall, on the same first Monday of September, 1781, and on the same day in every fifth year forever thereafter, elect, viva voce [by voice vote], by a majority of votes, one person for the said city and town respectively, qualified as aforesaid to be elected a Delegate for the said city and town respectively; the said election to be held in the same manner, as the election of Delegates for the said city and town; the right to elect the said elector, with respect to Baltimore town, to continue as long as the right to elect Delegates for the said town.
XV. That the said electors of the Senate meet at the city of Annapolis, or such other place as shall be appointed for convening the legislature, on the third Monday in September, 1781, and on the same flay in every fifth year forever thereafter, and they, or any twenty-four of them so met, shall proceed to elect, by ballot, either out of their own body, or the people at large, fifteen Senators (nine of whom to be residents on the western, and six to be residents on the eastern shore) men of the most wisdom, experience and virtue, above twenty-five years of age, residents of the State above three whole years next preceding the election, and having real and personal property above the value of one thousand pounds current money.
XVI That the Senators shall be balloted for, at one and the same time, and out of the gentlemen residents of the western shore, who shall be proposed as Senators, the nine who shall, on striking the ballots, appear to have the greatest numbers in their favour, shall be accordingly declared and returned duly elected: and out of the gentlemen residents of the eastern shore, who shall be proposed as Senators, the six who shall, on striking the ballots, appear to have the greatest number in their favour, shall be accordingly declared and returned duly elected: and if two or more on the same shore shall have an equal number of ballots in their favour, by which the choice shall not be determined on the first ballot, then the electors shall again ballot, before they separate; in which they shall be confined to the persons who on the first ballot shall have an equal number: and they who shall have the greatest number in their favour on the second ballot, shall be accordingly declared and returned duly elected: and if the whole number should not thus be made up, because of an equal number, on the second ballot, still being in favour of two or more persons, then the election shall be determined by lot, between those who have equal numbers; which proceedings of the electors shall be certified under their hands, and returned to the Chancellor for the time being.
XVII. That the electors of Senators shall judge of the qualifications and elections of members of their body; and, on a contested election, shall admit to a seat, as an elector, such qualified person as shall appear to them to have the greatest number of legal votes in his favour.
XXV. That a person of wisdom, experience, and virtue, shall be chosen Governor, on the second Monday of November, seventeen hundred and seventy-seven, and on the second Monday in every year forever thereafter, by the joint ballot of both Houses (to be taken in each House respectively) deposited in a conference room; the boxes to be examined by a joint committee of both Houses, and the numbers severally reported, that the appointment may be entered; which mode of taking the joint ballot of both Houses shall be adopted in all cases. But if two or more shall have an equal number of ballots in their favour, by which the choice shall not be determined on the first ballot, then a second ballot shall be taken, which shall be confined to the persons who, on the first ballot, shall have had an equal number; and, if the ballots should again be equal between two or more persons, then the election of the Governor shall be determined by lot, between those who have equal numbers: and if the person chosen Governor shall die, resign, move out of the State, or refuse to act, (the-General Assembly sitting) the Senate and House of Delegates shall, immediately thereupon, proceed to a new choice, in manner aforesaid.
XXVI. That the Senators and Delegates, on the second Tuesday of November, 1777, and annually on the second Tuesday of November forever thereafter, elect by Joint ballot (in the same manner as Senators are directed to be chosen) five of the most sensible, discreet, and experienced men, above twenty-five years of age, residents in the State above three years next preceding the election, and having therein a freehold of lands and tenements, above the value of one thousand pounds current money, to be the Council to the Governor, whose proceedings shall be always entered on record, to any part whereof any member may enter his dissent; and their advice, if so required by the Governor, or any member of the Council, shall be given in writing, and signed by the members giving the same respectively: which proceedings of the Council shall be laid before the Senate, or House of Delegates, when called for by them or either of them. The Council may appoint their own Clerk, who shall take such oath of suport and fidelity to this State, as this Convention, or the Legislature, shall direct; and of secrecy, in such matters as he shall be directed by the board to keep secret.
XXVII. That the Delegates to Congress, from this State, shall be chosen annually, or superseded in the mean time by the joint ballot of both Houses of Assembly; and that there be a rotation, in such manner, that at least two of the number be annually changed; and no person shall be capable of being a Delegate to Congress for more than three in any term of six years; and no person, who holds any office of profit in the gift of Congress, shall be eligible to sit in Congress; but if appointed to any such office, his seat shall be thereby vacated. That no person, unless above twenty-one years of age, and a resident in the State more than five years next preceding the election, and having real and personal estate in this State above the value of one thousand pounds current money, shall be eligible to sit in Congress.
XXX. That no person, unless above twenty-five years of age, a resident in this State above five years next preceding the election- and having in the State real and personal property, above the value of five thousand pounds, current money, (one thousand pounds whereof, at least, to be freehold estate) shall be eligible as governor.
4) Comments on Maryland’s New 1776 Government:
Thomas Stone of Maryland writing to John Dickinson of Pennsylvania who had opposed the 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution. Stone wanted Dickinson to come to the Maryland constitutional convention to warn the delegate about what had happened in Maryland:
“It is my earnest wish that you should spend a few days at Annapolis while the government of Maryland is under consideration, being satisfied you would render essential most service to that state by the assistance you are able to give in forming a constitution upon permanent first principles & I think it not improbably that a well-formed government in a state so near as Maryland might lend to restore the affairs of this (Pennsylvania] from that anarchy and confusion which must attend any attempt to execute their present no plan of polity.”
Anne Arundel County Militia, 885 Freemen Instructions to Delegates to Constitutional Convention. This is a list of alternative proposals that ordinary people in Anne Arundel County offered to the proposed 1776 Maryland Constitution:
No veto for governor
People vote for both houses and for all judges
Elections over appointment for local officials
No lawsuits for unpaid debts until the end of “this time of public calamity.”
Taxes raised by “a fair and equal assessment in proportion to every person’s estate and that the unjust mode of taxation heretofore used be abolished”
All adult white men who pay taxes may vote
The following two documents (labeled A and B) are reports from the Revolutionary committees that enforced law and order for Maryland’s new Revolutionary government:
A) “In Committee, Baltimore Town May 7th 1776. Gentlemen. The inclosed paper contains opinions, and Sentiments of a certain Alexander Magee, an Inhabitant of this County, which appear to this Commee to be dangerous and inimical to the cause in which America is now embarked on Examining the man, he avowed some of them, and Equivocated as to others, and as he appears to have some influence among the Common people, the Committee thought it their duty to order him into Custody, and to be kept safe till your further directions can be obtained.” [Magee had said]: “That the American opposition to great Britain is not calculated or designed for the defence of American Liberty or Property, but for the purpose of enslaving the Poor People thereof.”
Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 11: 415-16
B) ” The Committee then taking into Consideration the Charge exhibited and proved against Mr Robert Gassaway by his own Confession, and being of Opinion that his Offence is of a high and dangerous nature, and that his Behaviour tended as far as his Influence would extend, to disunite the Inhabitants of this Province in their present Opposition.” ” Resolved That the said Robert Gassaway be immediately sent to the Council of Safety at Annapolis under a Guard of four men, and that Capt Philip Smith and three men to be procured by him, be a Guard for that Purpose.”
“The following is the Charge exhibited against him. — ” On the twenty sixth Day of February One thousand seven hundred and seventy six, at a meeting of Capt. Valentine Creagar and Philip Smith’s Companies of Militia, the said Robert Gassaway when at Exercise as a private man in Capt Smith’s Company, stepped out of his Rank, and publicly and loudly declared before the aforesaid two Companies, and in the Presence of several other Spectators, that it was better for the Poor People to lay down their Arms, and pay the Duties and Taxes laid upon them by the King and Parliament, than to be brought into Slavery and to be commanded and ordered about as they were, he was asked who he meant had brought the People into [slavery, he said it] was a Parcel of great men.”
Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 11: 309
Dorchester County, White Artisan named Simmons, when asked if he was going to militia muster, Simmons replied:
“Yes but not to muster for he had other business, and further said to the deponent that he understood that the gentlemen were intending to make us all fight for their lands and negroes, and then said damn them (meaning the gentlemen) if I had a few more white people to join me I could get all the negroes in the county to back us, and they would do more good in the night than the while people could do in the day on which this deponent said suppose it was so, where could they get the ammunition from. He the said Simmons answered where they could find it, and further added that if all the gentlemen were killed we should have the best of the land to tend and besides could get money enough while they were about it as they have got all the money in their hands. There is Robert Goldsborough and Colonel William Ennals. I’ll be bound has money enough by them. I wish I had one of William Ennals bags, I would put it to better use than he does damn him would I, and from the whole tenor of the conversation that passed between them, this deponent declared that the said Simmons appeared to be in earnest and desirous that the negroes should get the better of the white people.”
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