Islamic History

Respond to two of three following essay prompts.
Use assigned primary and secondary sources. You may also cite lectures/class discussion when appropriate, but the bulk of your evidence should come from the readings.
You must cite your sources.
Responses should be typed, double spaced, 12 pt. font, 1-inch margins and each essay should be 5-7 pages. I will NOT read more than 14 pages from you so do not go beyond the page limit.
Review the rubric in order to understand how you will be evaluated.

1. There is a dearth of concrete, contemporary evidence of Muhammad’s life and career. Archaeology at Mecca and Medina, to the extent that any has been done has not yet produced anything that can be directly tied to Muhammad. No documents have been found apart from the Constitution of Medina, and that only exists as a copy of a copy. However, there are four main sources for the study of Muhammad’s life, and they are all complicated and complicating: three are internal to the Islamic tradition (the Qur’an, the Hadith, and prophetic biographies), and one is external (contemporary accounts from non-Muslims outside Arabia). Discuss the advantages and limitations of each body of source material and make an argument about the extent to which historians can use these sources to reconstruct a history of Muhammad’s life and career.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Islamic History
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

2. The “umma” of Muhammad is known throughout Islamic history as a community of believers united in their devotion to the One God. However, Fred Donner addresses the nebulous, often misunderstood concept of “umma” in early Islam. According to Donner, it has held a range of meanings since the seventh century. From at least the ninth century, it has also had a more particular signification of the universal community of Muslim believers. What do Berkey and Donner say about the extent to which this later meaning was part of Islamic discourse from its earliest inception? To what extent can its specificity as a community of Muslims be projected into the past? Using both secondary and primary sources, make an argument about whether the “umma” of the 7-8th centuries included non-Muslims and describe the specific historical processes that may have led to a narrowing of the term’s application.

3. The religious power of the leader of the community of “true believers” resided with the Prophet Muhammad, who had sealed it. It extended further only in the memory of Muhammad’s companions, who remembered and transmitted what he had said, prescribed, and practiced. Since the first caliphs – the four “rightly guided” caliphs known as the Rashidun (Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmān, ‘Alī) – were in fact companions, they could, to a certain extent, incarnate both the political authority of the community leader and the religious power of someone who knew what the Prophet had meant. However, the dispute surrounding the fourth caliph, ‘Alī broke the chain of the companion caliphs. Using both primary and secondary sources explain how the nature of religious and political authority transformed following the first fitna? In the history of early Islam, to what extent is it even analytically useful to consider religious and political authority as separate categories? If so, when do these become distinct categories of authority? Describe the specific events, institutions, factions, ideologies etc. that altered the nature of religious/political authority after the Rashidun.

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Quality Papers

At Acme Writers, we always aim at 100% customer satisfaction. As such, we never compromise o the quality of our homework services. Our homework helpers ensure that they craft each paper carefully to match the requirements of the instruction form.

Professional Academic Writers

With Acme Writers, every student is guaranteed high-quality, professionally written papers. We ensure that we hire individuals with high academic qualifications who can maintain our quality policy. These writers undergo further training to sharpen their writing skills, making them more competent in writing academic papers.

Affordable Prices

Our company maintains a fair pricing system for all academic writing services to ensure affordability. Our pricing system generates quotations based on the properties of individual papers.

On-Time delivery

Acme Writers guarantees all students of swift delivery of papers. We understand that time is an essential factor in the academic world. Therefore, we ensure that we deliver the paper on or before the agreed date to give students ample time for reviewing.

100% Originality

Acme Writers maintains a zero-plagiarism policy in all papers. As such, Acme Writers professional academic writers ensure that they use the students’ instructions to deliver plagiarism-free papers. We are very keen on avoiding any chance of similarities with previous papers.

Customer Support 24/7

Our customer support works around the clock to provide students with assistance or guidance at any time of the day. Students can always communicate with us through our live chat system or our email and receive instant responses. Feel free to contact us via the Chat window or support email: support@Acme Writers.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Samples

Our writers complete papers strictly according to your instructions and needs, no matter what university, college, or high school you study in.

All samples
Analysis (any type)
Argumentative essays
Dissertation/Dissertation chapter
Analysis (any type)
Advantages and disadvantages of lowering the voting age to thirteen
Undergrad. (yrs 1-2)
Political science
View this sample
Argumentative essays
Is euthanasia ethical or not?
Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)
View this sample
Dissertation/Dissertation chapter
Videoconferencing as a teaching tool
Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)
View this sample

Our Homework Writing Services

Acme Writers holds a reputation for being a platform that provides high-quality homework writing services. All you need to do is provide us with all the necessary requirements of the paper and wait for quality results.


Essay Writing Services

At Acme Writers, we have highly qualified academic gurus who will offer great assistance towards completing your essays. Our homework writing service providers are well-versed with all the aspects of developing high-quality and relevant essays.


Admission and Business Papers

With Acme Writers, we will help you secure a position at your desired institution. Our essay writing services include the crafting of admissions papers. We will still help you climb your career ladder by helping you write the official papers that will help you secure a job. We will guide you on how to write an outstanding portfolio or resume.


Editing and Proofreading

Acme Writers has a professional editorial team that will help you organize your paper, paraphrase it, and eliminate any possible mistakes. Also, we will help you check on plagiarism to ensure that your final paper posses quality and originality.


Technical papers

Acme Writers harbors professional academic writers from diverse academic disciplines. As such, we can develop homework writing services in all academic areas. The simplicity or complexity of the paper does not affect the quality of homework writing services.