Law Enforcement Histogram
Introduction
Generally speaking, raw, grouped data will show each and every observation in the data series. In our textbook, the author explains how descriptive statistics offers some “shortcuts” to understanding how our data are clustered and distributed (Berner, p. 36). These statistical shortcuts facilitate effective analysis and communication of data. One method we use to understand our data is grouping them so the overall shape or distribution of our data is easier to see. This grouping organizes the data into a more readable and understandable format. We can accomplish this grouping through a frequency distribution. See the first two columns of Table 35 from the text as an example of a frequency distribution.
As you can see, the first column on the left in Table 35 lists the “bins” within which each observation in the distribution will be placed. The next column to the right, titled “Frequency Distribution,” lists the frequency in which a value that fits within each bin appears in the raw data of the whole distribution. The author describes a frequency distribution as “a distribution of the frequencies for each value of a variable (Berner, p. 161).” A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution.
Assignment Guidelines
This assignment requires you to construct and explain a histogram. Pages 38 and 39 of the textbook provide an example of a histogram.
The histogram will be based on a collection of law enforcement related data that has been converted to a frequency distribution (see Table 35 as an example). Students may choose an internal department data series or another, external law enforcement related data series. Examples of external data are reports published by the FBI or NIJ. Students are encouraged to choose a data series to convert and analyze that could serve as a value added resource to their jobs.
Description of the Deliverable
In completing your assignment, pay particular attention to the difference between a histogram and a simple bar chart. These two types of graphs are not the same, and they are used for different purposes. Your assignment will need to demonstrate the frequency distribution nature of the data in your histogram graph.
Assignments will also need to include a brief summary of the distribution and any conclusions or observations made from the data. For the summary of the distribution, please discuss the average level, the variation (also reference any outliers), and the overall shape of the distribution. The summary should be no longer than a paragraph.
Assignment files will need to be in either a Word, Excel, or PDF format and include the following three elements:
1. frequency distribution for the data selected
2. histogram graph based on the frequency distribution
3. summary paragraph discussing observations and conclusions
The full grading rubric for this assignment is below:
Learning Objective: Construct a histogram based on a collection of law enforcement data that has been converted to a frequency distribution.
Category Unsatisfactory (1 points) Fair (3 points) Excellent (5 points)
Conversion of Data to a Frequency Distribution · Data are not related to law enforcement.
· Chosen data are not converted correctly to a frequency distribution. Data and graph equate to a simple bar chart. · Data have little relevance to law enforcement and limited value to job responsibilities
· Chosen data are converted to a frequency distribution, but not with accuracy. · Data are relevant to law enforcement and valuable to overall job responsibilities.
· Chosen data are converted accurately to a frequency distribution.
Construct a Histogram · Histogram is not complete or does not include all data points or show all data points accurately.
· Histogram ‘bins’ are not appropriate as they relate to the frequency distribution.
· Graph is not labeled and source cited.
· Histogram hand drawing is not neatly completed and understandable to the reader. · Histogram is complete but information is not visually displayed clearly.
· Histogram ‘bins’ chosen are not the best representation of the frequency distribution.
· Graph has a title, and axes are labeled. Data are source cited in explanation/narrative only.
· Histogram is hand drawn and able to be understood by the reader. · Histogram is complete and information is visually displayed clearly.
· Histogram ‘bins’ are represented appropriately based on original data.
· Graph has a title, and axes are correctly labeled. Data are source cited correctly at the bottom of the graph.
· Histogram is neatly drawn or electronically created.
Comprehension, Interpretation, and Explanation of Graph · The student does not explain the results, their conclusions, and what the results visually tell the reader about the data in a brief paragraph.
· Explanation does not show understanding of the histogram. · Student is able to complete a paragraph with a basic explanation how the histogram was constructed.
· Explanation shows basic understanding of the histogram. · Student is able to complete a brief paragraph explaining the results, what conclusions were made from the results, and what the results visually tell the reader about the data.
· Explanation shows a clear understanding of the histogram
Rubric
M4b. Histogram Assignment
M4b. Histogram Assignment
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConversion of Data to a Frequency Distribution
• Data are relevant to law enforcement and valuable to overall job responsibilities. • Chosen data are converted accurately to a frequency distribution. 5.0 pts
Excellent 3.0 pts
Fair 1.0 pts
Unsatisfactory
5.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConstruct a Histogram
• Histogram is complete and information is visually displayed clearly. • Histogram ‘bins’ are represented appropriately based on original data. • Graph has a title, and axes are correctly labeled. Data are source cited correctly at the bottom of the graph. • Histogram is neatly drawn or electronically created. 5.0 pts
Excellent 3.0 pts
Fair 1.0 pts
Unsatisfactory
5.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComprehension, Interpretation, and Explanation of Graph
• Student is able to complete a brief paragraph explaining the results, what conclusions were made from the results, and what the results visually tell the reader about the data. • Explanation shows a clear understanding of the histogram 5.0 pts
Excellent 3.0 pts
Fair 1.0 pts
Unsatisfactory
5.0 pts
Total Points: 15.0
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