Sex and gender, sexuality, and sexual health.

Question 1 1 pts
Which statement about road rage in the United States is true?
Group of answer choices

All other industrialized countries have similar incidents of road rage.

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A similar prevalence of road rage is seen mostly in regions ruled by violent leadership.

Road rage is exceedingly rare in the United States compared to other countries.

Road rage is an individual incident and tells us nothing about how societies compare.

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Question 2 1 pts
What would a sociologist be likely to say about the notion of common sense?
Group of answer choices

Common sense explanations are true because they uphold our culture’s values.

Common sense ideas such as “men are aggressive” tend to be verified by further scientific study.

We can trust common sense explanations because they have endured across history.

Common sense explanations often trade in untrue stereotypes posed as fact.

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Question 3 1 pts
Many immigrants arriving in the United States end up with “Americanized” names. How do the reasons for this practice help to illustrate inequality?
Group of answer choices

Only the wealthy have the privilege of changing key aspects of identity such as names.

Immigrants understand that names that do not “sound American” can be an obstacle to success.

Migrants from very powerful countries are able to blend in and render their privilege invisible.

Taking on the name of a famous and powerful person is thought to grant greater success.

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Question 4 1 pts
How did sociologists react to the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution and Enlightenment?
Group of answer choices

Sociologists both praised and criticized the new developments.

Sociologists were not present in society for another three centuries.

Sociologists uniformly praised the changes, calling for increasingly rapid social change.

Sociologists uniformly condemned the changes and felt that society had gone too far.

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Question 5 1 pts
If statistical analysis demonstrated that suicide rates had increased in a country, one might analyze this using Durkheim’s theories by examining
Group of answer choices

social factors that cause increasing social equality, which Durkheim believed caused discontent.

social forces that are known to cause increases in mental illness such as schizophrenia.

social changes influencing social norms and levels of social integration.

changes in the nature of class conflict, which Durkheim believed was a major source of social strain.

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Question 6 1 pts
The world has seen a dramatic explosion of movements emphasizing ethnic uniformity as the sole basis for unity in recent years. Based on what you know from Chapter 1, which of the following is likely to accompany such a movement?
Group of answer choices

A nation-state that emphasizes multiculturalism

Increasing communication between people in the movement’s territory and those outside of it

An increase in security and stability in the region

The violent restoration of a strict gender binary and gender roles

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Question 7 1 pts
Are sociologists more likely to advocate cultural relativism or ethnocentrism, and why?
Group of answer choices

Ethnocentrism, because it argues that some cultures are relatively superior to others, as research suggests.

Neither, as there has not been enough research for most sociologists to take a position between the two.

Neither. Sociologists are more likely to advocate a position of culture shock.

Cultural relativism, because each culture organizes its activities from the unique perspective of its own members, and therefore one culture should not stand in judgment of another.

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Question 8 1 pts
Which accurately describes recent trends in how we are interacting with media?
Group of answer choices

All of our interactions increasingly take place through media, from paying bills to shopping to interacting with professors.

People are increasingly ignoring media, preferring to experience the world directly.

Although media technologies have changed dramatically, they have not changed how we interact.

Many of our interactions now occur through media, but social interaction still mostly takes place face-to-face.

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Question 9 1 pts
Which of the following is one of the six basic elements that all cultures share?
Group of answer choices

Symbols

Calligraphy

Birthday celebrations

Identity cards

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Question 10 1 pts
Why are some practices of cultural export, such as the global spread of Coca Cola, labeled imperialist?
Group of answer choices

They are forced on their populations by authoritarian governments.

They are very unpopular, but they are present anyway.

The profits from sales return to U.S. corporations, and U.S. ideas maintain a dominant position.

They have been spread by U.S. military operations.

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Question 11 1 pts
Hula Hoops, the twist, popular mobile phone games, and Internet memes are examples of
Group of answer choices

high culture.

norms.

values.

fads.

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Question 12 1 pts
Which statement accurately describes the ways culture changes?
Group of answer choices

Culture does not change except by forceful conquest.

Culture changes rapidly and evenly across all of society.

Technological change is generally preceded by careful cultural preparation.

Culture is always changing but unevenly, in different ways and different places.

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Question 13 1 pts
Sociologists have discovered that members of a group
Group of answer choices

approach decision-making exactly like individuals.

have limited decision-making abilities.

have little effect on each other when making decisions.

make different decisions than would individuals deciding independently.

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Question 14 1 pts
A social identity that is recognized as meaningful by society is called a
Group of answer choices

role.

class.

status.

definition.

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Question 15 1 pts
Solomon Asch’s experiment on line length illustrates the phenomenon of
Group of answer choices

group conformity.

exchange.

group heterogeneity.

instrumental group cohesion.

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Question 16 1 pts
In what way is a network looser than a group?
Group of answer choices

In a network, there are fewer connections than in a group.

People in networks exert more control over others’ behavior.

People in networks are often farther removed compared to people in groups.

Networks are not looser than groups.

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Question 17 1 pts
Universities and corporations tend to be
Group of answer choices

normative organizations.

coercive groups.

secondary groups.

utilitarian organizations.

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Question 18 1 pts
Which term from Max Weber describes the increasing rationalization of social life that traps people in restrictive rules, regulations, and hierarchies?
Group of answer choices

Total institutions

The iron cage

Ideal type

Bystander effect

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Question 19 1 pts
Prior to the Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries, philosophers believed that
Group of answer choices

each of us is born as tabula rasa.

our identity is created by God.

we can change our predestination.

children are noble savages who can be changed by their environment.

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Question 20 1 pts
Which topic focuses most directly on how we are socialized through organized groups such as the family, religion, and school?
Group of answer choices

Identity

Interactions

Inequality

Institutions

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Question 21 1 pts
Studies on recovery from social isolation reveal that socially isolated children
Group of answer choices

can recover with effort and specialized care.

can easily overcome early isolation.

require no recovery because their instincts guide them to healthy behaviors.

are better able to socialize than most nonisolated children.

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Question 221  pts
On family trips to the zoo, when parents redirect children’s attention from one thing, such as a food dish, to point out another, such as an animal, the parents are
Group of answer choices

enjoying a fun family outing that has no greater social significance.

teaching the children about inequality between humans and animals.

interrupting the children’s actions and stopping the socialization process.

teaching the children what information is important and what can be ignored.

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Question 23 1 pts
What does research on word association and implicit bias show?
Group of answer choices

Most people associate words with individuals, not groups.

Internalized stereotypes and language are unrelated.

Most people have few implicit assumptions about words.

Internalized inequality is demonstrated in word associations.

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Question 24 1 pts
_____ refers to our group of friends and wider group of acquaintances who have an enormous socializing influence on us, especially in childhood.
Group of answer choices

Church community

Family

Out-group

Peer group

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Question 25 1 pts
What is demonstrated by the fact that U.S. counties with incomes in the top 40% also have the highest rates of people earning bachelor’s degrees?
Group of answer choices

Bachelor’s degrees are available equally to rich and poor people in the United States.

A person who grows up in a wealthy community is much more likely to get a degree.

Wealthy people tend not to value education but focus on earning money instead.

Naturally successful people achieve both wealth and education through their talents.

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Question 26 1 pts
Which of the following is a traditional marker of adulthood in American society?
Group of answer choices

Dropping out of school

Getting married

Partying on the weekends

Puberty

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Question 27 1 pts
If your father was a janitor, it is unlikely that you will one day be president. This statement exemplifies the concept of
Group of answer choices

social mobility.

social ideologies.

meritocracy.

social reproduction.

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Question 28 1 pts
When politicians in recent elections made appeals to working families and “people who shower after work, not before,” this provided evidence that
Group of answer choices

the importance of class in the United States is increasing.

politicians are trying to downplay the importance of class.

political rhetoric is out of touch with American beliefs.

the importance of class in the United States is decreasing.

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Question 29 1 pts
Theda Skocpol’s term the missing middle
refers to the
Group of answer choices

gradual disappearance of the middle class in the United States.

refusal of the middle classes to respond to survey studies.

missing data on class from the mid-20th century.

gradual increase in people identifying as middle class.

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Question 30 1 pts
If someone falls below the poverty line, what do we know about them?
Group of answer choices

They have spent more than 6 months unemployed.

They have filed for bankruptcy.

They lack the minimum income necessary for food, shelter, and clothing.

They are lower middle class.

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Question 31 1 pts
What is the class-based social movement that would instill a democratic society (actual rule by numerical majority)?
Group of answer choices

Labor movement

Welfare system

Colonialism

Dependency theory

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Question 32 1 pts
What term describes banks’ lending tiny amounts of money to local poor people?
Group of answer choices

Welfare

Microcredit

Commodity chain

World systems theory

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Question 33 1 pts
Miscegenation, which was punished by prison sentences in 41 states until 1967, refers to
Group of answer choices

a form of stereotyping.

racial discrimination.

segregation of schools, neighborhoods, and restaurants.

interracial romantic relationships.

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Question 34 1 pts
Our categorization in different groups structures our experiences uniquely. For example, a black woman may experience both sexism and racism, as well as unique forms of gendered racism or racialized sexism. Sociologists today use the term _____ to describe this.
Group of answer choices

internal colonies

matrix of overlaps

compound theory

intersectionality

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Question 35 1 pts
Studying intersectionality can tell us that
Group of answer choices

a Muslim man is more oppressed than a white woman.

a person’s experience of oppression generally results from one feature of identity.

neither a Muslim man nor a white woman are oppressed; each has a privileged identity.

different kinds of oppression overlap and reinforce each other.

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Question 36 1 pts
Historically, the category white has been
Group of answer choices

determined solely by skin color.

determined mostly by income level.

static and determined by country of origin.

shifting and affected by social positioning.

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Question 37 1 pts
_____ is the process by which ethnic identities are brought back and reclaimed after having been discarded.
Group of answer choices

Eugenics

Assimilation

Ethnic renewal

Intersectionality

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Question 38 1 pts
The Black Lives Matter movement emerged in response to
Group of answer choices

the absence of black actors honored with Academy Awards.

the racist aggression displayed toward President Obama.

legal segregation and Jim Crow laws.

the disproportionate killings of black people by police officers.

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Question 39 1 pts
A 2016 study found that the number of hate groups in the United States has _____ since 2000.
Group of answer choices

declined completely

decreased by 25%

remained static

increased by 50%

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Question 40 1 pts
A person who is transgender
Group of answer choices

has developed a gender identity that is different from what the culture says should match the sex the person was assigned at birth.

wears the clothing typically assigned to the gender opposite of the person’s own.

was born with a combination of chromosomes that caused the person’s sex to deviate from the binary.

has undergone medical procedures to alter the person’s anatomical sex.

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Question 41 1 pts
What has changed in terms of cross-gender friendships since the 1980s?
Group of answer choices

Men and women are more rarely friends with each other, as social relations have become more sexualized.

Sociologists find virtually no change in the frequency of cross-gender friendships.

Men and women are more rarely friends with each other, due to political tensions.

There are more cross-gender friendships now than there were in the 1980s.

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Question 42 1 pts
Which statement accurately describes the argument of Janet Hyde’s gender similarities hypothesis?
Group of answer choices

Men and women can be assumed to be more similar than they are different in any given category until proven otherwise.

For every similarity that has been identified between men and women, there is another area of striking difference.

Although gender roles have different labels across cultures, the strict gender binary is universal.

Gender inequality is an impossible goal because the differences between men and women are so much greater than the similarities.

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Question 43 1 pts
Which statement accurately explains why men disproportionately commit violent crimes?
Group of answer choices

The overwhelming presence of female lawmakers biases the law against men.

Men are excluded from economic power and so must use physical power.

Violence is a way that men learn to “do gender”—from crime to participation in war and policing.

Men are biologically predisposed to violent behavior.

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Question 44 1 pts
Some people argue that recent trends showing that women are doing better in school than men are proof that we no longer live in an androcentric, male-privileged society. What does the sociology of gender say about this?
Group of answer choices

Although we still live in an androcentric society, boys’ ideas of what it means to be a man causes them to disengage from school.

It is true that we no longer live in an androcentric society; men no longer receive undue privilege.

These trends are temporary; as people adjust to social changes, women will fall behind again.

Although white men are falling behind women in school, the trend does not hold for men of color.

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Question 45 1 pts
What is the dual labor market?
Group of answer choices

The ways men and women are disproportionately represented in night shifts versus daytime shifts

The condition in the United States in which work and workers are divided into different sectors—primary or secondary, formal or informal, and male or female

The condition in the labor market in which women tend to hold dual jobs to make up for lower pay

The need for all women to perform dual labor—both tasks in the workplace and domestic work in the home

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Question 46 1 pts
Which statement describes the concept of gender convergence?
Group of answer choices

Gaps in social equality between men and women are gradually decreasing as social movements succeed.

Men’s and women’s opinions about gender and labor are becoming increasingly similar.

Despite inequalities, men and women’s relationships to each other are becoming stronger.

Due to social progress, men and women are more alike in appearance and behavior than ever before.

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Question 47 1 pts
Rates of anorexia and bulimia in the United States are
Group of answer choices

higher than anywhere else in the world.

lower than anywhere else in the world.

higher in men than in any other country but not in women.

static across race and class.

Flag this Question
Question 48 1 pts
Talcott Parsons’s term for how we learn to be sick is
Group of answer choices

disability.

reciprocal effects.

sick role.

disease incidence.

Flag this Question
Question 49 1 pts
Jane Ward found that men who identify as heterosexual
Group of answer choices

are strictly interested in sex with women.

do not use the Internet to find sex partners.

sometimes seek out same-sex sex.

have very fixed, consistent identities.

Flag this Question
Question 50 1 pts
The term for the simultaneous increased inclusion of gay people in popular, political, and cultural venues alongside the persistence of anti-gay laws, high suicide rates, and homophobic violence is
Group of answer choices

heteronormativity.

heterosexuality.

the tolerance trap.

sexual discr

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