what science is Assignments | Custom Assignments Help

This is class instructions, please answer by following them: This class is organized around two themes: The first is an introductory section about the history of science studies and sociological approaches to the development of science. Questions addressed in this section revolve around what science is, the way that science changes over time, and whether and to what degree scientific knowledge can be separated from or held above lay understandings of phenomena. The second theme of the course moves beyond the development of science to look at the work of professional and scientific “experts” as they produce and reify professional and scientific claims to knowledge. This theme allows us to engage with some of the most exciting and intellectually challenging work in the sociology of science. By the end of this course, you should be able to think critically about the way science is produced, what various methods of science attempt to understand or change about the world, as well how expertise and the work of experts contributes to the development of scientific knowledge.

These are class readings you must read and please summarized them into a coherent narrative which shows you did the readings and can see connections between them.
1. Wednesday—Laura Snyder. 2011. The Philosophical Breakfast Club and the Invention of the Scientist. Dibner Library Lecture: P. 1-19
Available at:http://library.si.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/general_pages/2011- DibnerLecture-LauraSnyder.pdf
2. Friday—Philosophize This! Podcast: The Limits of Empiricism. (Episode 39). [Available on Spotify.]
And—Karl Popper, 1962. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Selections.
3. Monday—Ludwik Fleck 1981[1935]. Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Selections Available here: https://worldpece.org/sites/default/files/artifacts/media/pdf/fleck_et_al._-_2008_-_genesis_and_development_of_a_scientific_fact.pdf
4. Bruno Latour. 2000. “On the Partial Existence of Existing and Non-Existing Objects.” Pp. 247–69 in Biographies of Scientific Objects, edited by L. Daston. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Available here:http://www.bruno-latour.fr/sites/default/files/65-DASTON- RAMSES-GB.pdf
5. Foucault, Michel. 1975 [1995]. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books. Part 1, “The Body of the Condemned”.
6. John Levi Martin. 2003. What is Field Theory. American Journal of Sociology. 109.1: 1-49. Continued.
7.Krause, M. 2017. How Fields Vary. The British Journal of Sociology. 69.1: 1-22
8.Gil Eyal. 2013. For a Sociology of Expertise: The Social Origins of the Autism Epidemic. American Journal of Sociology 118.4: 863–907.
9.E. Summerson Carr. 2010. Enactments of Expertise. Annual Review of Anthropology. 39: 17-32
10.Navon, D. and Eyal, G. 2016. Looping Genomes: Diagnostic Change and the Genetic Makeup of the Autism Population. American Journal of Sociology. 121.5: 1416-71. Continued.
11. Marion Fourcade. 2011. Cents and Sensibility: Economic Valuation and the Nature of ‘Nature,’ American Journal of Sociology, 116(6): 1721-77

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